Norovirus, an RNA virus of the family Caliciviridae, is a human enteric pathogen that causes substantial morbidity across both health care and community settings. Several factors enhance the transmissibility of norovirus, including the small inoculum required to produce infection (<100 viral particles), prolonged viral shedding, and its ability to survive in the environment. In this review, we describe the basic virology and immunology of noroviruses, the clinical disease resulting from infection and its diagnosis and management, as well as host and pathogen factors that complicate vaccine development. Additionally, we discuss overall epidemiology, infection control strategies, and global reporting efforts aimed at controlling this worldwide cause of acute gastroenteritis. Prompt implementation of infection control measures remains the mainstay of norovirus outbreak management.
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