Physical activity and type 1 diabetes: time for a rewire?

J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2015 May;9(3):609-18. doi: 10.1177/1932296814566231. Epub 2015 Jan 6.


While being physically active bestows many health benefits on individuals with type 1 diabetes, their overall blood glucose control is not enhanced without an effective balance of insulin dosing and food intake to maintain euglycemia before, during, and after exercise of all types. At present, a number of technological advances are already available to insulin users who desire to be physically active with optimal blood glucose control, although a number of limitations to those devices remain. In addition to continued improvements to existing technologies and introduction of new ones, finding ways to integrate all of the available data to optimize blood glucose control and performance during and following exercise will likely involve development of "smart" calculators, enhanced closed-loop systems that are able to use additional inputs and learn, and social aspects that allow devices to meet the needs of the users.

Keywords: artificial pancreas; exercise; insulin; physical activity; technology; type 1 diabetes.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Insulin Infusion Systems
  • Monitoring, Physiologic
  • Motor Activity*


  • Blood Glucose
  • Hypoglycemic Agents