A number of studies have been carried out to investigate the association of X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 6 (XRCC6) polymorphisms and cancer risks, and the results remained inconsistent and inconclusive.To assess the effect of XRCC6 polymorphisms on cancer susceptibility, we conducted a meta-analysis, up to May 23rd 2014, 6267 cases with different types of tumor and 7536 controls from 20 published case-control studies. Summary odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals for XRCC6 polymorphism and cancer risk were estimated using fixed- or random-effects models when appropriate. Heterogeneity was assessed by chi-squared-based Q-statistic test, and the sources of heterogeneity were explored by subgroup analyses, logistic meta-regression analyses and Galbraith plot. Publication bias was evaluated by Begg funnel plot and Egger test. Sensitivity analyses were also performed.The rs2267437 polymorphism was associated with a significant increase in risks of overall cancers, breast cancer, renal cell carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma, and it could increase the cancer risk in Asian population; the rs5751129 polymorphism could increase the cancer risk in overall cancers; the rs132770 polymorphism was associated with the increased renal cell carcinoma risk; furthermore, the rs132793 polymorphism could decrease breast cancer risk and increase risks in "other cancers".Overall, the results provided evidences that the single nucleotide polymorphisms in XRCC6 promoter region might play different roles in various cancers, indicating different cancers have different tumorigenesis mechanisms. Our studies may perhaps supplement for the disease monitoring of cancers in the future, and additional studies to determine the exact molecular mechanism might provide us with interventions to protect the susceptible subgroups.