Hyper, a hydrogen peroxide sensor, indicates the sensitivity of the Arabidopsis root elongation zone to aluminum treatment

Sensors (Basel). 2015 Jan 6;15(1):855-67. doi: 10.3390/s150100855.


Emerging evidence indicates that some reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as the superoxide anion radical and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), are central regulators of plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Thus, the cellular levels of ROS are thought to be tightly regulated by an efficient and elaborate pro- and antioxidant system that modulates the production and scavenging of ROS. Until recently, studies of ROS in plant cells have been limited to biochemical assays and the use of fluorescent probes; however, the irreversible oxidation of these fluorescent probes makes it impossible to visualize dynamic changes in ROS levels. In this work, we describe the use of Hyper, a recently developed live cell probe for H2O2 measurements in living cells, to monitor oxidative stress in Arabidopsis roots subjected to aluminum treatment. Hyper consists of a circularly permuted YFP (cpYFP) inserted into the regulatory domain of the Escherichia coli hydrogen peroxide-binding protein (OxyR), and is a H2O2-specific ratiometric, and therefore quantitative, probe that can be expressed in plant and animal cells. Now we demonstrate that H2O2 levels drop sharply in the elongation zone of roots treated with aluminum. This response could contribute to root growth arrest and provides evidence that H2O2 is involved in early Al sensing.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aluminum / toxicity*
  • Arabidopsis / drug effects
  • Arabidopsis / growth & development*
  • Biosensing Techniques*
  • Hydrogen Peroxide / analysis*
  • Intracellular Space / metabolism
  • Plant Roots / drug effects
  • Plant Roots / growth & development*
  • Plants, Genetically Modified


  • Hydrogen Peroxide
  • Aluminum