Brain-computer interface driven functional electrical stimulation system for overground walking in spinal cord injury participant

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2014;2014:1238-42. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2014.6943821.


The current treatment for ambulation after spinal cord injury (SCI) is to substitute the lost behavior with a wheelchair; however, this can result in many co-morbidities. Thus, novel solutions for the restoration of walking, such as brain-computer interfaces (BCI) and functional electrical stimulation (FES) devices, have been sought. This study reports on the first electroencephalogram (EEG) based BCI-FES system for overground walking, and its performance assessment in an individual with paraplegia due to SCI. The results revealed that the participant was able to purposefully operate the system continuously in real time. If tested in a larger population of SCI individuals, this system may pave the way for the restoration of overground walking after SCI.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Brain-Computer Interfaces*
  • Electric Stimulation*
  • Electroencephalography
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Paraplegia
  • Spinal Cord Injuries / physiopathology*
  • Walking / physiology*