A smartphone based ophthalmoscope

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2014;2014:2177-80. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2014.6944049.


A low-cost alternative to the direct ophthalmoscope, a simple optical adapter for a smartphone, is described. It can overcome many of the technical challenges of fundoscopy, providing a high-resolution view of the retina through an un-dilated pupil. This can be used in locations with limited diagnostic resources to detect conditions such as glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Comparison of optic nerve images from commercial retinal screening cameras with the smartphone adapter demonstrates strong evidence for no difference in performance in glaucomatous disc grading (p=0.98, paired student t test, n=300).

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cell Phone*
  • Cohort Studies
  • Equipment Design
  • Fundus Oculi
  • Humans
  • Kenya
  • Ophthalmoscopes*
  • Ophthalmoscopy / methods
  • Optic Disk
  • Optic Nerve Diseases
  • Poverty
  • Pupil / physiology
  • Retina / physiology*
  • Software