The arm motion detection (AMD) test

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2014;2014:5349-52. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2014.6944834.


Stroke can lead to sensory deficits that impair functional control of arm movements. Here we describe a simple test of arm motion detection (AMD) that provides an objective, quantitative measure of movement perception related proprioceptive capabilities in the arm. Seven stroke survivors and thirteen neurologically intact control subjects performed the AMD test. In a series of ten trials that took less than 15 minutes to complete, participants used a two-button user interface to adjust the magnitude of hand displacements produced by a horizontal planar robot until the motions were just perceptible (i.e. on the threshold of detection). The standard deviation of movement detection threshold was plotted against the mean and a normative range was determined from the data collected with control subjects. Within this normative space, subjects with and without intact proprioception could be discriminated on a ratio scale that is meaningful for ongoing studies of degraded motor function. Thus, the AMD test provides a relatively fast, objective and quantitative measure of upper extremity proprioception of limb movement (i.e. kinesthesia).

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Arm / physiopathology
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Female
  • Hand / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Kinesthesis*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Movement
  • Stroke / physiopathology
  • Upper Extremity / physiopathology
  • Young Adult