Extracts from herpes simplex virus-infected cells and from mock-infected cells have been compared for their ability to process at RNA poly(A) sites in vitro. Nuclear extracts from infected cells contain an activity that increases processing efficiency specifically at a late herpes simplex virus poly(A) site. By contrast, a second virus poly(A) site is processed with equal efficiency by nuclear extracts from infected and mock-infected cells. Using precursor RNAs containing these two virus poly(A) sites in tandem, which allows ready detection of the processing factor, we show that this specific activity is heat labile. Analysis of RNAs produced by virus recombinants that contain the poly(A) site sequences in tandem also indicates that increased processing at the late virus poly(A) site occurs in vivo.