We evaluated ABO associated outcomes in 1737 patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) at Stanford University between January 1986 and July 2011. Grafts were 61% ABO matched, 18% major mismatched (MM), 17% minor MM, and 4% bidirectional MM. Median follow-up was 6 years. In multivariate analysis, overall survival (OS) was inferior in minor MM hematopoietic cell transplantations (median 2.1 versus 6.3 years; hazard ratio [HR], 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19 to 2.05; P = .001) in comparison with ABO-matched grafts. ABO minor MM was associated with an increase in early nonrelapse mortality (NRM) (18% versus 13%; HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.06 to 2.06; P = .02). In an independent Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) analysis of 435 lymphoma patients receiving mobilized peripheral blood grafts, impairment of OS (HR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.07 to 2.25; P = .021) and increased NRM (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.11 to 2.68; P = .03) were observed in recipients of ABO minor-MM grafts. A second independent analysis of a CIBMTR data set including 5179 patients with acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome identified a nonsignificant trend toward decreased OS in recipients of ABO minor-MM grafts and also found ABO major MM to be significantly associated with decreased OS (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.31; P < .001) and increased NRM (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.4; P = .002). ABO minor and major MM are risk factors for worse transplantation outcomes, although the associated hazards may not be uniform across different transplantation populations. Further study is warranted to determine which patient populations are at greatest risk, and whether this risk can be modified by anti-B cell therapy or other peri-transplantation treatments.
Keywords: ABO mismatch; Allogeneic; Nonrelapse mortality; Transplantation.
Copyright © 2015 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.