Aims: Several studies linked vitamin D deficiency with coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and the presence of early atherosclerosis in asymptomatic Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) patients with no previous history of ischemic heart disease.
Methods: One hundred and forty-five patients with T1D (age 37.8 ± 8 years, 57 % male, all Caucasian, disease duration 20.6 ± 8.3 years, HbA1c 7.6 ± 1.4 % (60.2 ± 11.1 mmol/mol), body mass index (BMI) 25.2 ± 3.5 kg/m2, 52.4 % smokers, 23 % retinopathy, 10 % nephropathy) and 48 controls matched for age, sex, BMI and smoking habit were studied. 25OHD deficiency was defined for values ≤20 ng/mL. A sun exposure questionnaire, carotid ultrasonography to determine carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and the presence of atheroma plaques and cardiac computed tomography for evaluation of calcium artery calcification (CACS) were performed.
Results: T1D subjects showed a high proportion of 25OHD deficiency (43.2 % vs. 21.7 %, p = 0.032). Of all, 82 % of T1D patients and 92 % of controls had a calcium score of 0. CIMT was greater in patients with T1D (0.55 ± 0.14 mm vs 0.48 ± 0.15, p = 0.01) compared with controls. T1D subjects showed no differences in the results of CACS or CIMT according to the vitamin D concentrations.
Conclusions: T1D patients have lower concentrations and twice more prevalence of 25OHD deficiency than controls. There was no association between 25OHD concentrations and subclinical CAD.