DARPP-32 (dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphorprotein, Mr = 32,000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) is an inhibitor of protein phosphatase-1 and is enriched in dopaminoceptive neurons possessing the D1 dopamine receptor. Purified bovine DARPP-32 was phosphorylated in vitro by casein kinase II to a stoichiometry greater than 2 mol of phosphate/mol of protein whereas two structurally and functionally related proteins, protein phosphatase inhibitor-1 and G-substrate, were poor substrates for this enzyme. Sequencing of chymotryptic and thermolytic phosphopeptides from bovine DARPP-32 phosphorylated by casein kinase II suggested that the main phosphorylated residues were Ser45 and Ser102. In the case of rat DARPP-32, the identification of these phosphorylation sites was confirmed by manual Edman degradation. The phosphorylated residues are located NH2-terminal to acidic amino acid residues, a characteristic of casein kinase II phosphorylation sites. Casein kinase II phosphorylated DARPP-32 with an apparent Km value of 3.4 microM and a kcat value of 0.32 s-1. The kcat value for phosphorylation of Ser102 was 5-6 times greater than that for Ser45. Studies employing synthetic peptides encompassing each phosphorylation site confirmed this difference between the kcat values for phosphorylation of the two sites. In slices of rat caudate-putamen prelabeled with [32P]phosphate, DARPP-32 was phosphorylated on seryl residues under basal conditions. Comparison of thermolytic phosphopeptide maps and determination of the phosphorylated residue by manual Edman degradation identified the main phosphorylation site in intact cells as Ser102. In vitro, DARPP-32 phosphorylated by casein kinase II was dephosphorylated by protein phosphatases-1 and -2A. Phosphorylation by casein kinase II did not affect the potency of DARPP-32 as an inhibitor of protein phosphatase-1, which depended only on phosphorylation of Thr34 by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. However, phosphorylation of DARPP-32 by casein kinase II facilitated phosphorylation of Thr34 by cAMP-dependent protein kinase with a 2.2-fold increase in the Vmax and a 1.4-fold increase in the apparent Km. Phosphorylation of DARPP-32 by casein kinase II in intact cells may therefore modulate its phosphorylation in response to increased levels of cAMP.