Biomaterials. Electronic dura mater for long-term multimodal neural interfaces

Science. 2015 Jan 9;347(6218):159-63. doi: 10.1126/science.1260318.


The mechanical mismatch between soft neural tissues and stiff neural implants hinders the long-term performance of implantable neuroprostheses. Here, we designed and fabricated soft neural implants with the shape and elasticity of dura mater, the protective membrane of the brain and spinal cord. The electronic dura mater, which we call e-dura, embeds interconnects, electrodes, and chemotrodes that sustain millions of mechanical stretch cycles, electrical stimulation pulses, and chemical injections. These integrated modalities enable multiple neuroprosthetic applications. The soft implants extracted cortical states in freely behaving animals for brain-machine interface and delivered electrochemical spinal neuromodulation that restored locomotion after paralyzing spinal cord injury.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biocompatible Materials / therapeutic use
  • Brain-Computer Interfaces
  • Drug Delivery Systems / methods*
  • Dura Mater*
  • Elasticity
  • Electric Stimulation / methods*
  • Electrochemotherapy / methods*
  • Electrodes, Implanted*
  • Locomotion
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred Strains
  • Motor Cortex / physiopathology
  • Multimodal Imaging
  • Neurons / physiology
  • Paralysis / etiology
  • Paralysis / physiopathology
  • Paralysis / therapy*
  • Platinum
  • Prostheses and Implants*
  • Silicon
  • Spinal Cord / physiopathology
  • Spinal Cord Injuries / complications
  • Spinal Cord Injuries / physiopathology
  • Spinal Cord Injuries / therapy*


  • Biocompatible Materials
  • Platinum
  • Silicon