Total protein concentration and diagnostic test results for gray wolf (Canis lupus) serum using Nobuto filter paper strips

J Wildl Dis. 2015 Apr;51(2):475-8. doi: 10.7589/2013-07-185. Epub 2015 Jan 9.


Nobuto filter paper strips are widely used for storing blood-serum samples, but the recovery of proteins from these strips following rehydration is unknown. Poor recovery of proteins could reduce the concentration of antibodies and antigens and reduce the sensitivity of diagnostic assays. We compared the protein concentration, and its association with test sensitivity, of eluted Nobuto strip samples with paired sera. We collected and froze serum from five gray wolves (Canis lupus) for 8 mo. When thawed, we used a spectrophotometer (absorbance 280 nm) to determine the serum protein concentration for paired sera and Nobuto eluates for each animal in 2-fold serial dilutions. Total protein concentration was similar for both sample storage methods (Nobuto eluates and control sera), except for the undiluted samples in which Nobuto eluates had higher total protein concentrations. Both sample storage methods appear to produce similar results using the SNAP® 4Dx® Test to detect antibodies against pathogens causing Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, and ehrlichiosis as well as antigen for canine heartworm disease.

Keywords: Anaplasmosis; Canis lupus; Lyme disease; Nobuto filter paper strips; SNAP® 4Dx®; canine heartworm; ehrlichiosis; sera storage.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies / blood
  • Blood Proteins / chemistry*
  • Blood Specimen Collection / methods
  • Blood Specimen Collection / veterinary*
  • Clinical Laboratory Techniques
  • Dirofilaria
  • Micropore Filters
  • Paper*
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Serologic Tests / veterinary
  • Specimen Handling
  • Wolves*


  • Antibodies
  • Blood Proteins