Context: The most recent European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines on urologic trauma were published in 2014.
Objective: To present a summary of the 2014 version of the EAU guidelines on urologic trauma of the lower urinary tract with an emphasis on diagnosis and treatment.
Evidence acquisition: The EAU Trauma Panel reviewed the English-language literature via a Medline search for lower urinary tract injury (LUTI) up to November 2013. The focus was on newer publications and reviews, although older key references could be included.
Evidence synthesis: A full version of the guidelines is available in print (EAU Guidelines 2014 edition, ISBN/EAN 978-90-79754-65-6) and online (www.uroweb.org). Blunt trauma is the main cause of LUTI. The preferred diagnostic modality for bladder and urethral injury is cystography and urethrography, respectively. In the treatment of bladder injuries, it is important to distinguish between extra- and intraperitoneal ruptures. Treatment of male anterior urethral injuries depends on the cause (blunt vs penetrating vs penile-fracture-related injury). Blunt posterior urethral injuries can be corrected by immediate/early endoscopic realignment. If this is not possible, such injuries are managed by suprapubic urinary diversion and deferred (>3 mo) urethroplasty. Treatment of female urethral injuries depends on the location of the injury and is usually surgical.
Conclusions: Correct treatment of LUTIs is important to minimise long-term urinary symptoms and sexual dysfunction. This review performed by the EAU trauma panel summarises the current management of LUTIs.
Patient summary: Patients with trauma to the lower urinary tract benefit from accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment according to the nature and severity of their injury.
Keywords: Bladder injury; Bladder trauma; European Association of Urology (EAU); Guidelines; Lower urinary tract; Urethral injury; Urethral trauma.
Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.