Probable Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus transmission occurred after aerosol-generating medical procedures in Russia: nosocomial cluster

Int J Infect Dis. 2015 Apr;33:120-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2014.12.047. Epub 2015 Jan 7.


We report here a fatal case of laboratory confirmed Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), which caused nosocomial infection in eight health care workers (HCWs), who had provided medical care for the patient. All the HCWs survived. The report demonstrates that airborne transmission of CCHF is a real risk, at least when the CCHF patient is in a ventilator. During performance of any aerosol-generating medical procedures for any CCHF patient airborne precautions should always be added to standard precautions, in particular, airway protective N95 mask or equivalent standard, eye protection, single airborne precaution room, or a well-ventilated setting.

Keywords: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever; airborne transmission; nosocomial cluster.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Aerosols
  • Cross Infection / drug therapy
  • Cross Infection / transmission*
  • Cross Infection / virology
  • Fatal Outcome
  • Female
  • Health Personnel
  • Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo*
  • Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean / drug therapy
  • Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean / transmission*
  • Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean / virology
  • Humans
  • Infection Control / methods*
  • Pregnancy
  • Probability
  • Russia
  • Ventilators, Mechanical
  • Young Adult


  • Aerosols