Impact of weight loss diet associated with flaxseed on inflammatory markers in men with cardiovascular risk factors: a clinical study

Nutr J. 2015 Jan 10;14:5. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-14-5.


Background: Flaxseed has received attention for its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant role. The present study hypothesizes if flaxseed added to a weight loss diet could improve the lipid and metabolic profiles and decrease risk factors related to cardiovascular disease.

Methods: In a prospective, single blinded 42 days protocol, subjects were allocated into two groups with low carbohydrates intake: GriceLC (35% of carbohydrate and 60g of raw rice powder per day) and GflaxLC (32% of carbohydrate and 60g of flaxseed powder per day). Blood pressure, anthropometric measures and serum levels of isoprostane, C-reactive protein, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, glucose, lipidic profile, uric acid, adiponectin, leptin and insulin were measured at baseline and at the end of interventions. Serum and urinary enterodiol and enterolactione were also measured.

Results: A total of 27 men with cardiovascular risk factors were evaluated, with mean age of 33 ± 10 years to GriceLC and 40 ± 9 years to GflaxLC. Both groups experienced weight loss and systolic blood pressure reduction. A decrease in inflammatory markers (CRP and TNF-α) was observed after flaxseed intake (mean decrease of 25% and 46% for GflaxLC respectively). All groups also showed improvement in levels of total cholesterol, LDL-c, uric acid and adiponectin. Only GflaxLC group showed a decrease in triglyceride levels.

Conclusion: This study suggests that flaxseed added to a weight loss diet could be an important nutritional strategy to reduce inflammation markers such as CRP and TNF-α.

Trial registration: NCT02132728.

Publication types

  • Controlled Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Retracted Publication

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anthropometry
  • Biomarkers / blood*
  • Blood Pressure
  • Brazil
  • C-Reactive Protein / analysis
  • Cardiovascular Diseases*
  • Diet, Reducing / methods*
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage
  • Flax*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / blood
  • Inflammation / prevention & control*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity / diet therapy
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Seeds*
  • Single-Blind Method
  • Triglycerides / blood
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / blood
  • Weight Loss


  • Biomarkers
  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Triglycerides
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • C-Reactive Protein

Associated data