Use of baru (Brazilian almond) waste from physical extraction of oil to produce gluten free cakes

Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2015 Mar;70(1):50-5. doi: 10.1007/s11130-014-0460-7.


The extraction of oil from baru almonds produces a waste that carries part of their nutritional qualities and antioxidants. It can be used to produce partially deffated baru flour (PDBF). We aimed to evaluate the applicability of PDBF and the effect of the addition of xanthan gum (XG) to produce gluten free cakes. Cakes were prepared with 100% wheat flour (WF cake) and with 100% PDBF and four different levels of XG (0%-PDBF cake, 0.1%-X1, 0.2%-X2 and 0.3%-X3 cakes), and evaluated for composition, antioxidants, moisture, specific volume, texture and sensory acceptance. PDBF cakes showed lower carbohydrate values, but higher protein, lipids, calories and antioxidant contents. They were rich in fiber, as well as iron, zinc and copper. The replacement of WF by PDBF resulted in an increased hardness and adhesiveness and a decreased cohesiveness, elasticity and moisture. Chewiness of X2 cake was similar to that of WF cake. X2 and X3 cakes showed specific volume closer to that of WF cake. No difference was found among the treatments for texture and appearance acceptances. Flavor of X2 and X3 cakes were more accepted than WF cake. Acceptance of all cakes were in the liking region of hedonic scale. PBDF associated to XG is a feasible option to substitute WF in gluten free cake, improving its nutritional quality.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants
  • Diet, Gluten-Free*
  • Dietary Fiber / analysis
  • Dietary Proteins / analysis
  • Flour / analysis*
  • Food Analysis
  • Nutritive Value*
  • Plant Oils / chemistry*
  • Prunus / chemistry*
  • Trace Elements / analysis


  • Antioxidants
  • Dietary Fiber
  • Dietary Proteins
  • Plant Oils
  • Trace Elements
  • almond oil