Alternatives to testosterone replacement: testosterone restoration

Asian J Androl. 2015 Mar-Apr;17(2):201-5. doi: 10.4103/1008-682X.143736.


The European Male Aging Study has demonstrated that the hypogonadism of male aging is predominantly secondary. Theoretically with appropriate stimulation from the pituitary, the aging testis should be able to produce eugonadal levels of testosterone. The strategies for the treatment of late onset hypogonadism (LOH) have focused on replacement with exogenous testosterone versus restoration of endogenous production. The purpose of this article is to review existing peer-reviewed literature supporting the concept of restoration of endogenous testosterone in the treatment of LOH.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aging / metabolism
  • Aromatase Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Chorionic Gonadotropin / therapeutic use
  • Clomiphene / therapeutic use
  • Contraindications
  • Eunuchism / drug therapy*
  • Eunuchism / metabolism
  • Guanosine Triphosphate / metabolism
  • Hormone Replacement Therapy*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Testis / metabolism
  • Testosterone / metabolism*
  • Testosterone / therapeutic use*


  • Aromatase Inhibitors
  • Chorionic Gonadotropin
  • Clomiphene
  • Testosterone
  • Guanosine Triphosphate