The effect of walking on risk factors for cardiovascular disease: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised control trials

Prev Med. 2015 Mar;72:34-43. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.12.041. Epub 2015 Jan 8.

Abstract

Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised control trials that examined the effect of walking on risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

Methods: Four electronic databases and reference lists were searched (Jan 1971-June 2012). Two authors identified randomised control trials of interventions ≥ 4 weeks in duration that included at least one group with walking as the only treatment and a no-exercise comparator group. Participants were inactive at baseline. Pooled results were reported as weighted mean treatment effects and 95% confidence intervals using a random effects model.

Results: 32 articles reported the effects of walking interventions on cardiovascular disease risk factors. Walking increased aerobic capacity (3.04 mL/kg/min, 95% CI 2.48 to 3.60) and reduced systolic (-3.58 mm Hg, 95% CI -5.19 to -1.97) and diastolic (-1.54 mm Hg, 95% CI -2.83 to -0.26) blood pressure, waist circumference (-1.51 cm, 95% CI -2.34 to -0.68), weight (-1.37 kg, 95% CI -1.75 to -1.00), percentage body fat (-1.22%, 95% CI -1.70 to -0.73) and body mass index (-0.53 kg/m(2), 95% CI -0.72 to -0.35) but failed to alter blood lipids.

Conclusions: Walking interventions improve many risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This underscores the central role of walking in physical activity for health promotion.

Keywords: Cardiovascular risk; Exercise; Health; Walking.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Adiposity / physiology
  • Blood Pressure
  • Body Mass Index
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lipids / blood
  • Male
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Risk Factors
  • Waist Circumference
  • Walking / physiology*

Substances

  • Lipids