Management of conjunctival malignant melanoma: a review and update

Expert Rev Ophthalmol. 2014 Jun;9(3):185-204. doi: 10.1586/17469899.2014.921119.


Conjunctival malignant melanoma is a pigmented lesion of the ocular surface. It is an uncommon but potentially devastating tumor that may invade the local tissues of the eye, spread systemically through lymphatic drainage and hematogenous spread, and recur in spite of treatment. Despite its severity, the rarity of available cases has limited the evidence for diagnosis and management. This review will provide an overview of the epidemiology, presentation, diagnosis, management, and surveillance of conjunctival melanoma, with an emphasis on recent advances in biological therapies to treat this disease.

Keywords: BRAF inhibitors; Conjunctival malignant melanoma; dabrafenib; interferon alpha-2b; ipilimumab; melanoma; mitomycin C; ocular neoplasm; vemurafenib.