The brain emerges as a regulator of hepatic triglyceride-rich very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL-TG). The neurocircuitry involved as well as the ability of fatty acids to trigger a neuronal network to regulate VLDL-TG remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that infusion of oleic acid into the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) activates a MBH PKC-δ→KATP-channel signalling axis to suppress VLDL-TG secretion in rats. Both NMDA receptor-mediated transmissions in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) and hepatic innervation are required for lowering VLDL-TG, illustrating a MBH-DVC-hepatic vagal neurocircuitry that mediates MBH fatty acid sensing. High-fat diet (HFD)-feeding elevates plasma TG and VLDL-TG secretion and abolishes MBH oleic acid sensing to lower VLDL-TG. Importantly, HFD-induced dysregulation is restored with direct activation of either MBH PKC-δ or KATP-channels via the hepatic vagus. Thus, targeting a fatty acid sensing-dependent hypothalamic-DVC neurocircuitry may have therapeutic potential to lower hepatic VLDL-TG and restore lipid homeostasis in obesity and diabetes.