Importance: Age-associated changes in brain imaging and fluid biomarkers are characterized and compared in presenilin 1 (PSEN1)E280A mutation carriers and noncarriers from the world's largest known autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (AD) kindred.
Objective: To characterize and compare age-associated changes in brain imaging and fluid biomarkers in PSEN1 E280A mutation carriers and noncarriers.
Design, setting, and participants: Cross-sectional measures of 18F-florbetapir positron emission tomography, 18F-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, structural magnetic resonance imaging, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and plasma biomarkers of AD were assessed from 54 PSEN1 E280A kindred members (age range, 20-59 years).
Main outcomes and measures: We used brain mapping algorithms to compare regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose and gray matter volumes in cognitively unimpaired mutation carriers and noncarriers. We used regression analyses to characterize associations between age and the mean cortical to pontine 18F-florbetapir standard uptake value ratios, precuneus cerebral metabolic rates for glucose, hippocampal gray matter volume, CSF Aβ1-42, total tau and phosphorylated tau181, and plasma Aβ measurements. Age at onset of progressive biomarker changes that distinguish carriers from noncarriers was estimated using best-fitting regression models.
Results: Compared with noncarriers, cognitively unimpaired mutation carriers had significantly lower precuneus cerebral metabolic rates for glucose, smaller hippocampal volume, lower CSF Aβ1-42, higher CSF total tau and phosphorylated tau181, and higher plasma Aβ1-42 measurements. Sequential changes in biomarkers were seen at age 20 years (95% CI, 14-24 years) for CSF Aβ1-42, age 16 years (95% CI, 11-24 years) for the mean cortical 18F-florbetapir standard uptake value ratio, age 15 years (95% CI, 10-24 years) for precuneus cerebral metabolic rate for glucose, age 15 years (95% CI, 7-20 years) for CSF total tau, age 13 years (95% CI, 8-19 years) for phosphorylated tau181, and age 6 years (95% CI, 1-10 years) for hippocampal volume, with cognitive decline up to 6 years before the kindred's estimated median age of 44 years (95% CI, 43-45 years) at mild cognitive impairment diagnosis. No age-associated findings were seen in plasma Aβ1-42 or Aβ1-40.
Conclusions and relevance: This cross-sectional study provides additional information about the course of different AD biomarkers in the preclinical and clinical stages of autosomal dominant AD.