Objective: To investigate maternal and fetal outcome in hyperemesis gravidarum comparing enteral tube feeding of the mothers with other fluid/nutrition regimens.
Design: Retrospective hospital-based cohort.
Setting: University hospital, Norway.
Sample: All 558 women treated for hyperemesis gravidarum 2002-2011; 273 received water/electrolytes intravenously, 177 received nutritional supplements by peripheral line, 107 received enteral feeding by gastroscopically positioned nasojejunal tube and 10 received total parenteral nutrition.
Methods: Different fluid/nutritional groups were compared by chi-squared or non-parametric tests. The influence (odds ratio) of nutritional regimens on having small-for-gestational-age infants was evaluated by binary logistic regression.
Main outcome measures: Maternal weight gain during hospitalization and pregnancy, birthweight and gestational age at delivery.
Results: Women receiving enteral nutrition had significantly greater weight loss on admission (median 5.0 kg) and at start of nutrition (5.5 kg) than the other treatment groups (4.0 kg) (p < 0.001). Enteral nutrition was administered for up to 41 days (median 5 days) during hospitalization, leading to 0.8 kg weight gain (95% CI 0.5-1.0, p = 0.005). The tube-fed women achieved similar weight gain during pregnancy and experienced similar incidence of preterm birth or small-for-gestational age compared with the other treatment groups. Women with <7 kg total weight gain had increased risk of birthweight <2500 g and small-for-gestational-age infants (odds ratio 3.68, 95% CI 1.89-7.18, p < 0.001). The nutritional regimen used was not an independent risk factor.
Conclusion: Compared with other fluid/nutrition regimens, enteral tube feeding for women affected by severe hyperemesis gravidarum is associated with adequate maternal weight gain and favorable pregnancy outcomes.
Keywords: Hyperemesis gravidarum; naso-enteral tube; nutrition; outcome; pregnancy complications.
© 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.