This National Institutes of Health (NIH) Pathways to Prevention Workshop was cosponsored by the NIH Office of Disease Prevention (ODP), the NIH Pain Consortium, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. A multidisciplinary working group developed the workshop agenda, and an evidence-based practice center prepared an evidence report through a contract with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality to facilitate the workshop discussion. During the 1.5-day workshop, invited experts discussed the body of evidence, and attendees had opportunities to provide comments during open discussion periods. After weighing evidence from the evidence report, expert presentations, and public comments, an unbiased, independent panel prepared a draft report that identified research gaps and future research priorities. The report was posted on the ODP Web site for 2 weeks for public comment. This article is an abridged version of the panel's full report, which is available at https://prevention.nih.gov/programs-events/pathways-to-prevention/workshops/opioids-chronic-pain/workshop-resources#final report.