Meeting report VLPNPV: Session 5: Plant based technology

Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2014;10(10):3068-73. doi: 10.4161/21645515.2014.979693.


The VLPNPV 2014 Conference that was convened at the Salk institute was the second conference of its kind to focus on advances in production, purification, and delivery of virus-like particles (VLPs) and nanoparticles. Many exciting developments were reported and discussed in this interdisciplinary arena, but here we report specifically on the contributions of plant-based platforms to VLP vaccine technology as reported in the section of the conference devoted to the topic as well in additional presentations throughout the meeting. The increasing popularity of plant production platforms is due to their lower cost, scalability, and lack of contaminating animal pathogens seen with other systems. Reports include production of complex VLPs consisting of 4 proteins expressed at finely-tuned expression levels, a prime-boost strategy for HIV vaccination using plant-made VLPs and a live viral vector, and the characterization and development of plant viral nanoparticles for use in cancer vaccines, drug delivery, and bioimaging.

Keywords: Ab, antibody; BPV, bovine papillomavirus; BTV, Bluetongue virus; CPMV, cowpea mosaic virus; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HBV, Hepatitis B virus; HER2, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (also called c-ErbB-2); HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; HIV-1; HT, HyperTrans; Hepatitis B core antigen; Ig, immunoglobulin; MPR, membrane proximal region; NPV, nano-particle vaccine; PEG, polyethylene glycol; PVX, potato virus X; SNP, spherical nanoparticle; TMV, tobacco mosaic virus; UTR, untranslated region; VLP, virus-like particle; VNP, viral nanoparticle; bluetongue virus; c-Erbb-2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2); cowpea mosaic virus; i.p., intraperitoneal; live viral vectors; potato virus X; tobacco mosaic virus; viral nanoparticles; virus-like particles.

Publication types

  • Congress

MeSH terms

  • Bluetongue virus / immunology*
  • Capsid Proteins / biosynthesis*
  • Capsid Proteins / immunology
  • Hepatitis B Core Antigens / biosynthesis*
  • Hepatitis B Core Antigens / immunology
  • Humans
  • Nanoparticles
  • Plants / metabolism*
  • Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle / immunology
  • Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle / therapeutic use
  • gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus / biosynthesis*
  • gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus / immunology


  • Capsid Proteins
  • Hepatitis B Core Antigens
  • Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle
  • gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus