The occurrence of acute kidney injury (AKI) following aortic valve replacement (AVR) has very serious clinical implications and has therefore been the focus of several studies. The authors report the results of previous studies evaluating both transcatheter AVR (TAVR) and indirectly surgical AVR (SAVR) through looking at cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) cardiac surgeries, and identify the incidence, predictors and outcomes of AKI following AVR. In most studies, AKI was defined using the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End Stage, Valve Academic Research Consortium (modified Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End Stage) or Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 (Acute Kidney Injury Network) AKI classification criteria. Twelve studies including more than 90,000 patients undergoing cardiac surgery on CPB were considered as well as 26 studies with more than 6000 patients undergoing TAVR. Depending on the definition used, AKI occurred in 3.4-43% of SAVR cases with up to 2.5% requiring dialysis, and in 3.4-57% of TAVR cases. Factors identified as independent predictors of AKI were: baseline kidney failure, EUROSCORE, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, anemia, peripheral vascular disease, heart failure, surgical priority, CPB time, reoperation, use of intra-aortic balloon pump, need for re-exploration, contrast agent volume, transapical access, blood transfusion, postoperative thrombocytopenia, postoperative leukocytosis as well as demographic variables such as age and female gender. The 30-day mortality rate for patients with AKI following SAVR ranged from 5.5 to 46% and was 3- to 16-times higher than in those without AKI. Similarly, patients who developed AKI after TAVR had a mortality rate of 7.8-29%, which was two- to eight-times higher than those who did not suffer from AKI. AKI confers up to a fourfold increase in 1-year mortality. Finally, hospital length of stay was significantly increased in patients with AKI in both SAVR and TAVR groups, with increases up to 3- and 2.5-times, respectively.
Keywords: acute kidney injury; cardiac surgery; mortality; renal replacement therapy; surgical aortic valve replacement; transcatheter aortic valve replacement.