TAM receptor signaling in immune homeostasis

Annu Rev Immunol. 2015;33:355-91. doi: 10.1146/annurev-immunol-032414-112103. Epub 2015 Jan 14.

Abstract

The TAM receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs)-TYRO3, AXL, and MERTK-together with their cognate agonists GAS6 and PROS1 play an essential role in the resolution of inflammation. Deficiencies in TAM signaling have been associated with chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Three processes regulated by TAM signaling may contribute, either independently or collectively, to immune homeostasis: the negative regulation of the innate immune response, the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, and the restoration of vascular integrity. Recent studies have also revealed the function of TAMs in infectious diseases and cancer. Here, we review the important milestones in the discovery of these RTKs and their ligands and the studies that underscore the functional importance of this signaling pathway in physiological immune settings and disease.

Keywords: AXL; GAS6; MERTK; PROS1; TYRO3.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Disease Susceptibility
  • Homeostasis*
  • Humans
  • Immunity / physiology*
  • Ligands
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / chemistry
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction*

Substances

  • Ligands
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases