Risk Factors, Outcomes and Epidemiology Associated With Clostridium Difficile Infection in Patients With Haematological Malignancies in a Tertiary Care Hospital in China

J Med Microbiol. 2015 Mar;64(Pt 3):209-216. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.000028. Epub 2015 Jan 16.


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk factors, outcomes and epidemiology associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in patients with haematological malignancies in a tertiary care hospital in China. C. difficile screening was performed on patients admitted for chemotherapy or haematopoietic stem cell transplantation between 2009 and 2013. C. difficile isolates were analysed by multilocus sequence typing, and a retrospective chart review was performed on all patients with a positive toxin assay. CDI was diagnosed in 21 haematology-oncology ward patients and 14 marrow transplantation service patients for a cumulative incidence of 1.89/1000 and 3.69/1000 patient-days, respectively. Univariate analyses showed that patients who received etoposide had an increased risk of CDI (odds ratio 4.25, 95 % confidence interval 1.32-13.64). There was only one patient death, for which CDI was not the primary cause. Ten sequence types (STs) were identified, of which ST-3 and ST-54 were the most common; the hypervirulent ST-1 (ribotype 027) and ST-11 (ribotype 078) C. difficile strains were not detected in the patients in this study. The incidence of CDI did not differ between patients receiving chemotherapy and those receiving haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The only risk factor for chemotherapy patients was treatment with etoposide.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Anti-Infective Agents / therapeutic use
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use*
  • China / epidemiology
  • Clostridium Infections / blood
  • Clostridium Infections / drug therapy
  • Clostridium Infections / epidemiology*
  • Clostridium Infections / microbiology
  • Clostridium difficile / classification
  • Clostridium difficile / genetics
  • Clostridium difficile / isolation & purification*
  • Cross Infection
  • Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous / blood
  • Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous / drug therapy
  • Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous / epidemiology
  • Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous / microbiology
  • Etoposide / therapeutic use*
  • Feces / microbiology
  • Female
  • Hematologic Neoplasms / complications*
  • Hematologic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Hematologic Neoplasms / therapy
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / adverse effects*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multilocus Sequence Typing
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Ribotyping
  • Risk Factors
  • Tertiary Care Centers
  • Young Adult


  • Anti-Infective Agents
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic
  • Etoposide