Green biotechnology, nanotechnology and bio-fortification: perspectives on novel environment-friendly crop improvement strategies

Biotechnol Genet Eng Rev. 2014 Oct;30(1-2):113-26. doi: 10.1080/02648725.2014.992622. Epub 2015 Jan 19.


Food insecurity and malnutrition are prominent issues for this century. As the world's population continues to increase, ensuring that the earth has enough food that is nutritious too will be a difficult task. Today one billion people of the world are undernourished and more than a third are malnourished. Moreover, the looming threat of climate change is exasperating the situation even further. At the same time, the total acreage of arable land that could support agricultural use is already near its limits, and may even decrease over the next few years due to salination and desertification patterns resulting from climate change. Clearly, changing the way we think about crop production must take place on multiple levels. New varieties of crops must be developed which can produce higher crop yields with less water and fewer agricultural inputs. Besides this, the crops themselves must have improved nutritional qualities or become biofortified in order to reduce the chances of 'hidden hunger' resulting from malnourishment. It is difficult to envision the optimum way to increase crop production using a single uniform strategy. Instead, a variety of approaches must be employed and tailored for any particular agricultural setting. New high-impact technologies such as green biotechnology, biofortification, and nanotechnology offer opportunities for boosting agricultural productivity and enhancing food quality and nutritional value with eco-friendly manner. These agricultural technologies currently under development will renovate our world to one that can comfortably address the new directions, our planet will take as a result of climate change.

Keywords: green innovations; malnutrition; precision farming; transgenic; vitamin deficiency.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Agriculture / trends*
  • Biotechnology / trends*
  • Crops, Agricultural / growth & development*
  • Food Supply*
  • Genetic Enhancement / methods
  • Green Chemistry Technology / trends*
  • Nanotechnology / trends*
  • Plants, Genetically Modified / growth & development*