Impact of parent-directed education on parental use of pain treatments during routine infant vaccinations: a cluster randomized trial

Pain. 2015 Jan;156(1):185-191. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.0000000000000021.


Educating parents about ways to minimize pain during routine infant vaccine injections at the point of care may positively impact on pain management practices. The objective of this cluster randomized trial was to determine the impact of educating parents about pain in outpatient pediatric clinics on their use of pain treatments during routine infant vaccinations. Four hospital-based pediatric clinics were randomized to intervention or control groups. Parents of 2- to 4-month-old infants attending the intervention clinics reviewed a pamphlet and a video about vaccination pain management on the day of vaccination, whereas those in the control clinics did not. Parent use of specific pain treatments (breastfeeding, sugar water, topical anesthetics, and/or holding of infants) on the education day and at subsequent routine vaccinations 2 months later was the primary outcome. Altogether, 160 parent-infant dyads (80 per group) participated between November 2012 and February 2014; follow-up data were available for 126 (79%). Demographics did not differ between groups (P > 0.05). On the education day and at follow-up vaccinations, use of pain interventions during vaccinations was higher in the intervention group (80% vs 26% and 68% vs 32%, respectively; P < 0.001 for both analyses). Educating parents about pain management in a hospital outpatient setting leads to higher use of pain interventions during routine infant vaccinations.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Pain Management / methods*
  • Parents / education*
  • Patient Education as Topic / methods*
  • Single-Blind Method
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vaccination / adverse effects
  • Vaccination / methods*