Toxoplasma secretory granules: one population or more?

Trends Parasitol. 2015 Feb;31(2):60-71. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2015 Jan 15.


In Toxoplasma gondii, dense granules are known as the storage secretory organelles of the so-called GRA proteins (for dense granule proteins), which are destined to the parasitophorous vacuole (PV) and the PV-derived cyst wall. Recently, newly annotated GRA proteins targeted to the host cell nucleus have enlarged this view. Here we provide an update on the latest developments on the Toxoplasma secreted proteins, which to date have been mainly studied at both the tachyzoite and bradyzoite stages, and we point out that recent discoveries could open the issue of a possible, yet uncharacterized, distinct secretory pathway in Toxoplasma.

Keywords: GRA proteins; Toxoplasma gondii; dense granules; protozoa.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Host-Parasite Interactions
  • Humans
  • Protozoan Proteins / chemistry
  • Protozoan Proteins / genetics
  • Protozoan Proteins / metabolism
  • Secretory Vesicles / metabolism*
  • Toxoplasma / metabolism*


  • Protozoan Proteins