Effect of soil aeration and phosphate addition on the microbial bioavailability of carbon-14-glyphosate

J Environ Qual. 2015 Jan;44(1):137-44. doi: 10.2134/jeq2014.08.0331.

Abstract

The adsorption, desorption, degradation, and mineralization of C-glyphosate [-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] were examined in Catlin (a fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Oxyaquic Argiudoll), Flanagan (a fine, smectitic, mesic Aquic Argiudoll), and Drummer (a fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Endoaquoll) soils under oxic and anoxic soil conditions. With the exception of the Drummer soil, soil aeration did not significantly alter the adsorption pattern of C-glyphosate to soils. Herbicide desorption was generally enhanced with anaerobiosis in all the soil types. Anoxic soils demonstrated slower microbial degradation and mineralization kinetics of C-glyphosate than oxic soils in all the soil types studied. Phosphate additions significantly reduced the adsorption of C-glyphosate to soils irrespective of soil aeration and confirmed the well-established competitive adsorption theory. The addition of soil phosphate stimulated degradation only in anoxic soils. The results from this research highlight the importance of soil redox conditions as an important factor affecting the bioavailability and mobility of glyphosate in soils.