A minimal intervention to promote smoke-free homes among 2-1-1 callers: a randomized controlled trial

Am J Public Health. 2015 Mar;105(3):530-7. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2014.302260. Epub 2015 Jan 20.


Objectives: We tested the efficacy of a minimal intervention to create smoke-free homes in low-income households recruited through the United Way of Greater Atlanta 2-1-1, an information and referral system that connects callers to local social services.

Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial (n=498) from June 2012 through June 2013, with follow-up at 3 and 6 months. The intervention consisted of 3 mailings and 1 coaching call.

Results: Participants were mostly smokers (79.7%), women (82.7%), African American (83.3%), and not employed (76.5%), with an annual household income of $10,000 or less (55.6%). At 6-months postbaseline, significantly more intervention participants reported a full ban on smoking in the home than did control participants (40.0% vs 25.4%; P=.002). The intervention worked for smokers and nonsmokers, as well as those with or without children.

Conclusions: Minimal intervention was effective in promoting smoke-free homes in low income households and offers a potentially scalable model for protecting children and adult nonsmokers from secondhand smoke exposure in their homes.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01625468.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Air Pollution, Indoor / prevention & control*
  • Family Characteristics*
  • Female
  • Georgia / epidemiology
  • Hotlines
  • Housing
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Poverty
  • Referral and Consultation / statistics & numerical data
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Smoking / epidemiology
  • Smoking Prevention*
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution / prevention & control*


  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT01625468