Background and objectives: Suboxone(®) is a sublingual tablet of buprenorphine/naloxone, approved for the treatment of opioid dependence. The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of hepatic impairment or hepatitis C virus infection on the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine or naloxone and their major metabolites.
Methods: Forty-three subjects received a single dose of a Suboxone 2.0/0.5-mg tablet. Blood samples were collected up to 168 h and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using non-compartmental analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of covariance.
Results: Pharmacokinetic parameters were derived from 33 subjects. Compared with healthy subjects, for patients with severe hepatic impairment, total and peak exposures increased to 281.4 % [90 % confidence interval 187.1-423.3] and 171.8 % [117.9-250.2] for buprenorphine, 1401.9 % [707.6-2777.5] and 1129.8 % [577.2-2211.4] for naloxone. For moderate hepatic impaired subjects, naloxone total and peak exposure increased to 317.6 % [164.9-611.5] and 270.0 % [141.9-513.9]. For buprenorphine, only total exposure increased to 163.9 % [110.8-242.3]. Changes in maximum observed plasma concentration, area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to time of the last quantifiable concentration, and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity of buprenorphine or naloxone in subjects with mild hepatic impairment or with hepatitis C virus infection were within twofold of those of healthy subjects. Serious adverse events were not observed.
Conclusions: Severe and moderate hepatic impairment significantly increased exposure of naloxone and to a lesser extent of buprenorphine. Therefore, buprenorphine/naloxone combination products should generally be avoided in patients with severe hepatic impairment and may not be appropriate for patients with moderate hepatic impairment. However, buprenorphine/naloxone products may be used with caution for maintenance treatment in patients with moderate hepatic impairment who have initiated treatment on a buprenorphine product without naloxone [Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT01846455].