The Gram-negative, rod-shaped slow-growing strains Vaf-17, Vaf-18(T) and Vaf-43 were isolated from the nodules of Vavilovia formosa plants growing in the hard-to-reach mountainous region of the North Ossetian State Natural Reserve (north Caucasus, Russian Federation). The sequencing of 16S rDNA (rrs), ITS region and five housekeeping genes (atpD, dnaK, recA, gyrB and rpoB) showed that the isolated strains were most closely related to the species Bosea lathyri (class Alphaproteobacteria, family Bradyrhizobiaceae) which was described for isolates from root nodules of Lathyrus latifolius. However the sequence similarity between the isolated strains and the type strain B. lathyri LMG 26379(T) for the ITS region was 90 % and for the housekeeping genes it was ranged from 92 to 95 %. All phylogenetic trees, except for the rrs-dendrogram showed that the isolates from V. formosa formed well-separated clusters within the Bosea group. Differences in phenotypic properties of the B. lathyri type strain and the isolates from V. formosa were studied using the microassay system GENIII MicroPlate BioLog. Whole-cell fatty acid analysis showed that the strains Vaf-17, Vaf-18(T) and Vaf-43 had notable amounts of C16:0 (4.8-6.0 %), C16:0 3-OH (6.4-6.6 %), C16:1 ω5c (8.8-9.0 %), C17:0 cyclo (13.5-13.9 %), C18:1 ω7c (43.4-45.4 %), C19:0 cyclo ω8c (10.5-12.6 %) and Summed Feature (SF) 3 (6.4-8.0 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness between the strains Vaf-18(T) and B. lathyri LMG 26379(T) was 24.0 %. On the basis of genotypic and phenotypic analysis a new species Bosea vaviloviae sp. nov. (type strain RCAM 02129(T) = LMG 28367(T) = Vaf-18(T)) is proposed.