Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is caused by a premutation CGG-repeat expansion in the 5'UTR of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. The classical clinical manifestations include tremor, cerebellar ataxia, cognitive decline and psychiatric disorders. Other less frequent features are peripheral neuropathy and autonomic dysfunction. Cognitive decline, a form of frontal subcortical dementia, memory loss and executive function deficits are also characteristics of this disorder. In this review, we present an expansion of recommendations for genetic testing for adults with suspected premutation disorders and provide an update of the clinical, radiological and molecular research of FXTAS, as well as the current research in the treatment for this intractable complex neurodegenerative genetic disorder.
Keywords: FMPR; FMR1; FMR1 mRNA; FXTAS; late-onset neurological disorder and neurodegenerative disorder; premutation carrier; tremor/ataxia.