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, 43 (5), 483-9

Transforming Growth factor-β1 Protects Against Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction Caused by Hypoxia-Reoxygenation

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Transforming Growth factor-β1 Protects Against Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction Caused by Hypoxia-Reoxygenation

Kathryn L Howe et al. Shock.

Abstract

Intestinal epithelia regulate barrier integrity when challenged by inflammation, oxidative stress, and microbes. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is a cytokine with known beneficial effects on intestinal epithelia, including barrier enhancement, after exposure to proinflammatory cytokines and infectious agents. The aim of this study was to determine whether TGF-β1 directly protects intestinal epithelia during hypoxia-reoxygenation (HR). Intestinal epithelial monolayers (T84, Caco-2) were exposed to either hypoxia (1% O2, 1 h) or oxidative stress (hydrogen peroxide, 1 mM), followed by normoxic atmosphere for different time points in the absence and presence of varying concentrations of TGF-β1. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) assessed barrier function, with RNA extracted for reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of GPx-1, HIF-1, heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and NOX-1. In some experiments, intestinal epithelia were exposed to enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 during the reoxygenation period and TER recorded 7 h after the infectious challenge. Hypoxia-reoxygenation significantly decreased TER in intestinal epithelia compared with normoxic controls. Transforming growth factor-β1 pretreatment ameliorated HR-induced epithelial barrier dysfunction in T84 (at 1 - 3 h) and Caco-2 (1 h) monolayers. Transforming growth factor-β1 preserved barrier integrity for up to 16 h after challenge with hydrogen peroxide. In TGF-β1-treated epithelial monolayers, only HO-1 mRNA significantly increased after HR (P < 0.05 vs. normoxic controls). The EHEC-induced epithelial barrier dysfunction was significantly worsened by intestinal HR (P < 0.05 vs. normoxia-EHEC-infected cells), but this was not protected by TGF-β1 pretreatment. Transforming growth factor-β1 preserves loss of epithelial barrier integrity caused by the stress of HR via a mechanism that may involve the upregulation of HO-1 transcription. Targeted treatment with TGF-β could lead to novel therapies in enteric diseases characterized by HR injury.

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