Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with defective structure and/or function of motile cilia/flagella, causing chronic upper and lower respiratory tract infections, fertility problems, and disorders of organ laterality. Diagnosing PCD requires a combined approach utilizing characteristic phenotypes and complementary methods for detection of defects of ciliary function and ultrastructure, measurement of nasal nitric oxide and genetic testing. Currently, biallelic mutations in 31 different genes have been linked to PCD allowing a genetic diagnosis in approximately ~ 60% of cases. Management includes surveillance of pulmonary function, imaging, and microbiology of upper and lower airways in addition to daily airway clearance and prompt antibiotic treatment of infections. Early referral to specialized centers that use a multidisciplinary approach is likely to improve outcomes. Currently, evidence-based knowledge on PCD care is missing let alone management guidelines. Research and clinical investigators, supported by European and North American patient support groups, have joined forces under the name of BESTCILIA, a European Commission funded consortium dedicated to improve PCD care and knowledge. Core programs of this network include the establishment of an international PCD registry, the generation of disease specific PCD quality of life questionnaires, and the first randomized controlled trial in PCD.