Expanding the Clinical Spectrum of Mitochondrial Citrate Carrier (SLC25A1) Deficiency: Facial Dysmorphism in Siblings with Epileptic Encephalopathy and Combined D,L-2-Hydroxyglutaric Aciduria

JIMD Rep. 2015;19:111-5. doi: 10.1007/8904_2014_378. Epub 2015 Jan 23.


Recessive mutations in SLC25A1 encoding mitochondrial citrate carrier cause a rare inherited metabolic disorder, combined D,L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (D,L-2-HGA), characterized by epileptic encephalopathy, respiratory insufficiency, developmental arrest and early death. Here, we describe two siblings compound heterozygotes for null/missense SLC25A1 mutations, c.18_24dup (p.Ala9Profs*82), and c.134C>T (p.Pro45Leu). These children presented with classic clinical features of D,L-2-HGA, but also showed marked facial dysmorphism. Additionally, there was prominent lactic acidosis in one of the siblings. Our observations suggest that facial dysmorphism is a previously unrecognized but an important diagnostic feature of SLC25A1 deficiency and expand the clinical phenotype linked to SLC25A1 mutations.