Simultaneous glutamate recordings in the frontal cortex network with multisite biomorphic microelectrodes: New tools for ADHD research

J Neurosci Methods. 2015 Aug 30:252:75-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2015.01.018. Epub 2015 Jan 19.


Background: The aberrant regulation of glutamate has been implicated in numerous psychiatric disorders including drug addiction and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. To understand glutamate signaling and its role in facilitating disease, tools to directly measure glutamate in a complex, neural network are needed.

New method: The development of a ceramic-based, dual-sided, biomorphic microelectrode array with four recording sites on each side to facilitate a more detailed measurement of glutamate in awake, behaving rodents.

Results: In vitro calibrations of these biosensors showed selective and specific responses to glutamate. In awake rats, these biomorphic electrode arrays enabled the concurrent evaluation of glutamate in a network, the frontal cortex: including the cingulate, prelimbic, infralimbic and dorsal peduncle regions. Regions within the frontal cortex exhibited varying phasic glutamate patterns in awake animals.Comparison with existing method: Existing methodologies to measure glutamate neurotransmission employ single-sided biosensors or biosensors capable of measuring neurochemicals at only one location in space.

Conclusions: Multi-site, biomorphic neurochemical biosensors provide a method for simultaneously measuring glutamate in multiple areas of a neural network in the brain.

Keywords: Biosensors; Frontal cortex; Glutamate; Microelectrode array; Neural network.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / diagnosis*
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / metabolism*
  • Biosensing Techniques
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Frontal Lobe / pathology*
  • Glutamic Acid / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Microelectrodes*
  • Nerve Net / metabolism*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Inbred SHR


  • Glutamic Acid