We report the frequency, positive rate, and type of mutations in 14 genes (PMP22, GJB1, MPZ, MFN2, SH3TC2, GDAP1, NEFL, LITAF, GARS, HSPB1, FIG4, EGR2, PRX, and RAB7A) associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) in a cohort of 17,880 individuals referred to a commercial genetic testing laboratory. Deidentified results from sequencing assays and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) were analyzed including 100,102 Sanger sequencing, 2338 next-generation sequencing (NGS), and 21,990 MLPA assays. Genetic abnormalities were identified in 18.5% (n = 3312) of all individuals. Testing by Sanger and MLPA (n = 3216) showed that duplications (dup) (56.7%) or deletions (del) (21.9%) in the PMP22 gene accounted for the majority of positive findings followed by mutations in the GJB1 (6.7%), MPZ (5.3%), and MFN2 (4.3%) genes. GJB1 del and mutations in the remaining genes explained 5.3% of the abnormalities. Pathogenic mutations were distributed as follows: missense (70.6%), nonsense (14.3%), frameshift (8.7%), splicing (3.3%), in-frame deletions/insertions (1.8%), initiator methionine mutations (0.8%), and nonstop changes (0.5%). Mutation frequencies, positive rates, and the types of mutations were similar between tests performed by either Sanger (n = 17,377) or NGS (n = 503). Among patients with a positive genetic finding in a CMT-related gene, 94.9% were positive in one of four genes (PMP22, GJB1, MPZ, or MFN2).
Keywords: Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease; genetic testing; high-throughput nucleotide sequencing; molecular epidemiology; peripheral neuropathy.