XA23 is an executor R protein and confers broad-spectrum disease resistance in rice

Mol Plant. 2015 Feb;8(2):290-302. doi: 10.1016/j.molp.2014.10.010. Epub 2014 Dec 15.


The majority of plant disease resistance (R) genes encode proteins that share common structural features. However, the transcription activator-like effector (TALE)-associated executor type R genes show no considerable sequence homology to any known R genes. We adopted a map-based cloning approach and TALE-based technology to isolate and characterize Xa23, a new executor R gene derived from wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) that confers an extremely broad spectrum of resistance to bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Xa23 encodes a 113 amino acid protein that shares 50% identity with the known executor R protein XA10. The predicted transmembrane helices in XA23 also overlap with those of XA10. Unlike Xa10, however, Xa23 transcription is specifically activated by AvrXa23, a TALE present in all examined Xoo field isolates. Moreover, the susceptible xa23 allele has an identical open reading frame of Xa23 but differs in promoter region by lacking the TALE binding element (EBE) for AvrXa23. XA23 can trigger a strong hypersensitive response in rice, tobacco, and tomato. Our results provide the first evidence that plant genomes have an executor R gene family of which members execute their function and spectrum of disease resistance by recognizing the cognate TALEs in the pathogen.

Keywords: AvrXa23; TAL effector; Xa23; Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae; executor R gene; rice.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Disease Resistance
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Oryza / metabolism*
  • Oryza / microbiology*
  • Plant Diseases / microbiology
  • Plant Proteins / genetics
  • Plant Proteins / metabolism*
  • Xanthomonas / physiology


  • Plant Proteins