Background: The study aims to assess the residual alveolar bone volume in Chinese chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).
Materials and methods: Two hundred and eight HD patients and healthy controls were enrolled to undergo CBCT examination. To evaluate residual alveolar bone volume, bone height was measured from the alveolar crest (AC) to the maxillary sinus floor or the mandibular nerve canal, whereas bone width was measured at a depth of 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 mm apical to the AC.
Results: There was no significant difference in demographics and the extent of tooth loss between HD patients and control group. Both groups showed abundant residual bone volume. However, the heights of residual alveolar bone at the upper premolars and first molar in HD patients were significantly lower than those of the control group (p < 0.05). No significant difference was observed for alveolar bone at the lower premolars and molars. The bone width showed statistical differences for HD patients' upper second molars, lower first premolars, and second molars (p < 0.05).
Conclusions: While the residual bone was sufficient for implant placement, HD patients exhibited with significantly lower residual bone height at the sites of the upper premolars and first molar and varied residual bone width depending on the location.
Clinical relevance: Owing to these changes, special cautions need to be taken for patients undergoing HD or with chronically impaired renal functions during implant treatment planning.