Prevalence of Prehypertension in Mexico and Its Association With Hypomagnesemia

Am J Hypertens. 2015 Aug;28(8):1024-30. doi: 10.1093/ajh/hpu293. Epub 2015 Jan 23.


Background: Prehypertension (preHTN) increases the risk of developing hypertension. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of preHTN in the Mexican adult population and evaluate the association between hypomagnesemia and preHTN.

Methods: This study was a 2-phase, population-based study. In the first phase, 4,272 Mexican adults (aged 20-65 years) were enrolled to determine the prevalence of preHTN. In the second phase, a cross-sectional analysis was performed to evaluate the association between hypomagnesemia and preHTN. The exclusion criteria were chronic diarrhea, malignancy, hepatic and renal diseases, chronic inflammatory disease, and the intake of magnesium supplements. PreHTN was defined as a systolic blood pressure (BP) of 120-139 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP of 80-89 mm Hg, and hypomagnesemia was defined as a serum magnesium concentration <1.8 mg/dl.

Results: The prevalence of preHTN was 37.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 36.0-39.0): 46.7% were men (95% CI: 44.1-49.4) and 33.2% (95% CI: 31.5-5.0) were women. The serum magnesium data were available for 921 participants. Hypomagnesemia was identified in 276 (30.0%; 95% CI: 27.1-33.0) subjects; of them, 176 (63.8%; 95% CI: 58.3-69.6) had preHTN. Individuals with preHTN exhibited lower magnesium levels than individuals without preHTN (1.78±0.36 vs. 1.95±0.37, P < 0.0005). A multiple logistic regression analysis (adjusted for age, sex, smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides levels) indicated a significant association between hypomagnesemia and preHTN (odds ratio = 1.78; 95% CI: 1.5-4.0, P < 0.0005).

Conclusions: The prevalence of preHTN in the Mexican population is 37.5%, and hypomagnesemia is strongly associated with preHTN.

Keywords: Mexico; blood pressure; hypertension; magnesium; prehypertension; prevalence..

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Blood Glucose
  • Body Mass Index
  • Cholesterol / blood
  • Cholesterol, HDL / blood
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Magnesium / blood*
  • Male
  • Mexico / epidemiology
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Prehypertension / blood
  • Prehypertension / epidemiology*
  • Prevalence
  • Triglycerides / blood
  • Waist Circumference
  • Water-Electrolyte Imbalance / blood
  • Water-Electrolyte Imbalance / epidemiology*
  • Young Adult


  • Blood Glucose
  • Cholesterol, HDL
  • Triglycerides
  • Cholesterol
  • Magnesium