All of us now carry in our bodily tissues a virtual stew of heavy metals and hundreds of synthetic chemicals: persistent ones, which can have a "half-life" in the body of several years; and nonpersistent compounds, which may pass through the body in a matter of hours. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a nonpersistent compound that can alter the reproductive system of laboratory animals even at extremely low exposure levels. This is relevant because BPA is chronically present in our environment with the potential for constant exposure, making it functionally equivalent to a persistent compound. In this review the authors emphasize particular outcomes that occur in response to the relevant dose of BPA exposure that causes developmental effects on reproductive systems, brain and metabolic processes, and the male germ line. At a specific dose level, BPA exposure also shows oxidative toxicity and carcinogenic effects.