pH-sensitive interpenetrating polymer network microspheres of poly(vinyl alcohol) and carboxymethyl cellulose for controlled release of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ketorolac tromethamine

Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2016 May;44(3):817-24. doi: 10.3109/21691401.2014.982805. Epub 2015 Jan 24.


In this study, we aimed to produce pH-sensitive microspheres for the controlled release of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, ketorolac tromethamine (KT). For this purpose, an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) of microspheres of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) were prepared, based on different formulations using glutaraldehyde (GA) (0.66 M) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) (3%, v/v). The preparation conditions of the microspheres were optimized by considering the percentage of entrapment efficiency and swelling capacity of the microspheres, and their release data. The effects of PVA and NaCMC ratio on the release of KT for over a period of 6 h, at three pH values (1.2, 6.8, and 7.4), have been discussed.

Keywords: carboxymethyl cellulose; controlled release; interpenetrating polymer; ketorolac tromethamine.

MeSH terms

  • Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium / chemistry*
  • Delayed-Action Preparations / chemistry
  • Delayed-Action Preparations / pharmacokinetics
  • Delayed-Action Preparations / pharmacology
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Ketorolac Tromethamine* / chemistry
  • Ketorolac Tromethamine* / pharmacokinetics
  • Ketorolac Tromethamine* / pharmacology
  • Microspheres*
  • Polyvinyl Alcohol / chemistry*


  • Delayed-Action Preparations
  • Ketorolac Tromethamine
  • Polyvinyl Alcohol
  • Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium