T cell exhaustion during persistent viral infections

Virology. 2015 May;479-480:180-93. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2014.12.033. Epub 2015 Jan 22.


Although robust and highly effective anti-viral T cells contribute to the clearance of many acute infections, viral persistence is associated with the development of functionally inferior, exhausted, T cell responses. Exhaustion develops in a step-wise and progressive manner, ranges in severity, and can culminate in the deletion of the anti-viral T cells. This disarming of the response is consequential as it compromises viral control and potentially serves to dampen immune-mediated damage. Exhausted T cells are unable to elaborate typical anti-viral effector functions. They are characterized by the sustained upregulation of inhibitory receptors and display a gene expression profile that distinguishes them from prototypic effector and memory T cell populations. In this review we discuss the properties of exhausted T cells; the virological and immunological conditions that favor their development; the cellular and molecular signals that sustain the exhausted state; and strategies for preventing and reversing exhaustion to favor viral control.

Keywords: Cytokines; Immunity; Inhibitory receptors; Persistent infections; T cell exhaustion.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Chronic Disease
  • Gene Expression
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions
  • Humans
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • Virus Diseases / immunology*
  • Virus Diseases / virology*