Chordomas are an aggressive rare type of malignant bone tumors arising from the remnant of the notochord. Chordomas occur mainly in vertebral bones and account for 1-4% of malignant bone tumors. Management and treatment of chordomas are difficult as they are resistant to conventional chemotherapy; therefore, they are mainly treated with surgery and radiation therapy. In this study, we performed DNA methylation profiling of 26 chordomas and normal nucleus pulposus samples plus UCH-1 chordoma cell line using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. Combined bisulfite restriction analysis and bisulfite sequencing was used to confirm the methylation data. Gene expression was analyzed using RT-PCR before and after 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-azaDC) treatment of chordoma cell lines. Analysis of the HumanMethylation450 BeadChip data led to the identification of 8,819 loci (2.9%) that were significantly differentially methylated (>0.2 average β-value difference) between chordomas and nucleus pulposus samples (adjusted P < 0.05). Among these, 5,868 probes (66.5%) were hypomethylated, compared to 2,951 (33.5%) loci that were hypermethylated in chordomas compared to controls. From the 2,951 differentially hypermethylated probes, 33.3% were localized in the promoter region (982 probes) and, among these, 104 probes showed cancer-specific hypermethylation. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicates that the cancer-specific differentially methylated loci are involved in various networks including cancer disease, nervous system development and function, cell death and survival, cellular growth, cellular development, and proliferation. Furthermore, we identified a subset of probes that were differentially methylated between recurrent and non-recurrent chordomas. BeadChip methylation data was confirmed for these genes and gene expression was shown to be upregulated in methylated chordoma cell lines after treatment with 5-azaDC. Understanding epigenetic changes in chordomas may provide insights into chordoma tumorigenesis and development of epigenetic biomarkers.
Keywords: DNA Methylation; HumanMethylation450 BeadChips; chordomas; non-recurrent; recurrent.