Lack of neuronal nitric oxide synthase results in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-like behaviors in mice

Behav Neurosci. 2015 Feb;129(1):50-61. doi: 10.1037/bne0000031.


Nitric oxide (NO) is an important molecule for the proper development and function of the central nervous system. In this study, we investigated the behavioral alterations in the neuronal NO synthase knockout mice (NOS1 KO) with a deficient NO production mechanism in the brain, characterizing it as a potential rodent model for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). NOS1 KO exhibited higher locomotor activity than their wildtype counterparts in a novel environment, as measured by open field (OF) test. In a 2-way active avoidance paradigm (TWAA), we found sex-dependent effects, where male KO displayed deficits in avoidance and escape behavior, sustained higher incidences of shuttle crossings, and higher incidences of intertrial interval crossings, suggesting learning, and/or performance impairments. On the other hand, female KO demonstrated few deficits in TWAA. Molsidomine (MSD), a NO donor, rescued TWAA deficits in male KO when acutely administered before training. In a passive avoidance paradigm, KO of both sexes displayed significantly shorter step-through latencies after training. Further, abnormal spontaneous motor activity rhythms were found in the KO during the dark phase of the day, indicating dysregulation of rhythmic activities. These data indicate that NOS1 KO mimics certain ADHD-like behaviors and could potentially serve as a novel rodent model for ADHD.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / physiopathology*
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / prevention & control
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / psychology*
  • Avoidance Learning / drug effects
  • Avoidance Learning / physiology
  • Disease Models, Animal*
  • Female
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Molsidomine / administration & dosage
  • Motor Activity / drug effects
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I / genetics
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I / physiology*


  • Molsidomine
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I