A novel system for xylem cell differentiation in Arabidopsis thaliana

Mol Plant. 2015 Apr;8(4):612-21. doi: 10.1016/j.molp.2014.10.008. Epub 2014 Dec 13.


During vascular development, procambial and cambial cells give rise to xylem and phloem cells. Because the vascular tissue is deeply embedded, it has been difficult to analyze the processes of vascular development in detail. Here, we establish a novel in vitro experimental system in which vascular development is induced in Arabidopsis thaliana leaf-disk cultures using bikinin, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 proteins. Transcriptome analysis reveals that mesophyll cells in leaf disks synchronously turn into procambial cells and then differentiate into tracheary elements. Leaf-disk cultures from plants expressing the procambial cell markers TDR(pro):GUS and TDR(pro):YFP can be used for spatiotemporal visualization of procambial cell formation. Further analysis with the tdr mutant and TDIF (tracheary element differentiation inhibitory factor) indicates that the key signaling TDIF-TDR-GSK3s regulates xylem differentiation in leaf-disk cultures. This new culture system can be combined with analysis using the rich material resources for Arabidopsis including cell-marker lines and mutants, thus offering a powerful tool for analyzing xylem cell differentiation.

Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana; bikinin; leaf-disk culture; signaling; tracheary element differentiation; transcriptome.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aminopyridines / metabolism
  • Arabidopsis / cytology*
  • Arabidopsis / genetics
  • Arabidopsis / metabolism*
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / genetics
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / metabolism
  • Cell Differentiation / genetics
  • Cell Differentiation / physiology
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Phloem / cytology
  • Phloem / genetics
  • Phloem / metabolism
  • Plant Leaves / cytology
  • Plant Leaves / metabolism
  • Succinates / metabolism
  • Xylem / cytology*
  • Xylem / genetics
  • Xylem / metabolism*


  • Aminopyridines
  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • Succinates
  • bikinin